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THE SDE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF NEW CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES AND MATERIALS OF THE RSE KAZAKH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY N.A. AL-FARABI

Abasic type of Institute’s activity is development of theoretical and practical bases of new environmentally clean chemical technologies and materials in Kazakhstan.

The questions of theory and practice of catalytic hydrogenization of different compounds are decided by the employees of institute under the leadership of K. A. Zhubanov. The inculcated processes: 1) hydrogenization of fats – on Gorky fat-and-oil combine; 2) hydrogenization of fat acids – on Kazan chemical combine n.a. Vakhitov; 3) receptions of alphaoxystearic acid – on Berdyansk oil-petroleum plant; 4) selecting reduction of nitriles of stearic and oleic acids, acrylonitrile, beta-decyloxypropionitrile, nitrodiethylaniline, nitrobenzoylcyanacetic ether – on Dolgoprudnensk plant of thin organic synthesis.

Oil-processing mini-plants processing Kazakhstan high-gravity, highly viscous, high-sulphureous oils with productivity of 20-300 thousands of t/year on crude oil, providing the reception of fuels and butters of standard quality developed and projected in the RINCTM by now.

In theirs projects the newest scientific achievements of the Kazakhstan scientists on dehydration, desulphurization, demetallization of oil and processes of rectification, cracking, reforming with the use of the best domestic catalysts and technologies are included. That was confirmed by experimental-industrial tests on a mini-plant with working capacity of 5-10 tons in day. The cost of mini-refinery equal to 0,5-1,5 million dollars depending on the productivity.

In 2004 years the Institute was an organizer of international round table “Coal is alternative raw material for energy and chemical industry”, helding under chairmanship of director K. A. Zhubanov in Warsaw.

Developed in RINCTM such methods of coals processing as hydrogenization, gasification and row of other are very perspective for the reception of materials not only competitive with the traditional products of processing of petroleum but also in a number of cases possessing the complex of new original of properties.

Developed and projected mini-plants for coal hydrogenization and reception of complete assortment of fuels and oils from synthetic petroleum. Unlike foreign enterprises, a process is conducted at pressure of 40-50 atm., that in 5 times less than in foreign analogues. Productivity of factories on coal 30-200 tons in days, cost 4,5-6 million dollars depending on the productivity.

Catalysts and technologies of their production for processes of cracking, reforming, hydrofining of “coal” oil and petrochemicals, stabilizing of benzenes, diesel and reactive fuels, oils and lubricants are developed.

The complete list of NIOKR for implementation in industry of RK counts 27 mini-plants for the production of fuel and lubrication materials, monomers and polymers of the different purpose, medicinal preparations.

Works of RINCTM in area of coal processing captured the attention of foreign investors. In accordance with Agreement between Government of Republic of Kazakhstan and Government of People Republic of China about a scientific and technical collaboration and Contract to the technical collaboration between Research institute of new chemical technologies and materials and Heilongjiang Province Hit Science and Technology Cooperation of China-Russia Co. Ltd RINCTM developed, made and started a pilot stand on fluidization of coal with a productivity 50 kg of coal in days, developed and presented to a customer the explanatory note of production project of building of coal-oil-chemical complex with the productivity 30000 tons of coal in a year, calculations and drafts of gas-and-oil-burning stove, computer program of calculation of atmospheric rectifying column, drafts of rectifying column, complete set of drafts of block of preparation of coal and coal paste. The calculations of reactors and other equipment for the block of coal hydrogenization working at a high temperature and pressure are complete.

At development of production project of creation of coal-oil-chemical complex all questions of the using of recirculating water, utilization of wastes and cleaning of effluent gases are decided.

The technology of plasmochemical hydrogenization of hard fuels developed in an institute allows to get an acetylene and other unsaturated hydrocarbons (ethylene C2H4, propylene C3H6, ethane C2H6 and other) from cheap low-grade coals via their treatment by hydrogen plasma. The essence of technology of plasmochemical hydrogenization of hard fuels consists in heating of conny by hydrogen plasma, which is hydrogenizer, to the complete hydrogenization temperature at which converting of carbon of organic mass of coal into an acetylene and other unsaturated hydrocarbons is performed. Plasmochemical hydrogenization of hard fuels is intensive resource-saving technology of direct reception of acetylene from hard fuels.

On estimations specific power consumption for realization of the offered technology below on 10-15 % than for olefins reception technologies used in world practice.

In developed countries large attention is paid to the reception of H2 by the direct cracking of CH4 of natural gas to H2. The widest expansion was got by the method of catalytic steam conversion of natural gas in tubular reactors in presence of nickeliferous catalysts. Specific power consumption for a process equal to Qsp = 9,5 kWh/kg of hydrogen. The method of hydrogen reception by the electrolysis of water is also well-known. As a rule, the process of electrolysis is performed at pressure P = 40 atm. and specific power consumption Qsp = 56,7-62,2 kWh/kg of hydrogen.

Technology of the plasmochemical cracking of hydrocarbon gases in the flowing combined arc-jet reactor working at atmospheric pressure and weight-average temperatures in the reactor T = 2000-3200 K is developed in the Institute. Plasmochemical cracking of hydrocarbon gases is assumed to perform without using of catalysts. It is expected that specific power consumption for a process will be in the interval of Qsp = 16-18 kWh/kg of hydrogen.

The methods of carbon adsorbents reception on the basis of low-grade coals, reception of anthracene, phenanthrene and carbazole for chemical industry on the basis of products of coking are offered. The developed methods of utilization of power stations ash wastes – products of fuel burning for extraction from them cenospheres which used in the production of heat-insulation build blocks, micro containers for the protracted storage of high-toxic and radio-active wastes have a perspective. The consumption of coals for making of high-carbon, coal-graphite, composition materials, and plastic masses is increased.

Thus RINCT&M is the acknowledged scientific-research centre which executes researches on the followings foreground for a republic directions: development of non-waste environmentally clean technologies of the catalytic processing of hydrocarbon raw material; development of new catalysts for different processes, development of nanostructure polymeric compositions of different assignment; development of scientific bases of innovative technologies of reception of commodities with an increased value added on the base of the physical and chemical processing of coals, their products, heavy oil residues, natural bitumens, natural, petroleum and co-current gas, synthesis-gas, biogas, outgoing gases, containing monoxide of carbon, dioxide of carbon and other energy sources; creation of new materials with the managed properties, nanocomposite materials of the different appropriation on the basis of the self-organizing systems, pharmaceutical preparations, sorbents of different assignment, complex fertilizations, ameliorants, detoxicants and aggregate stabilizers of soils, inhibitors of metals and electrode materials corrosion.

New untraditional technologies, including not only chemical but also mechanochemical activating (electric field, electromagnetic field, sound, ultrasound, cavitation, joint influence of the electric field and sound, ultrasound in the resonance mode) of petroleum, coal, gases (co-current, petroleum, natural), catalysts, reagents with the purpose of increasing of depth of hydrocarbon raw material processing to 96% are developed.

The interestingness in joint researches of not only world scientific centres with which Institute works within the framework of international grants (INCO-COPERNICUS, NATO, INTAS, MNTC and other) but also of other organizations, with which RINCT&M conducts joint works, contracts about development, tests and commercialization of the technologies developed in Institute testifies about a novelty and perspective of researches conducted in RINCT&M.

EA