В работе дается обзор развития космической науки в Республике Казахстан. Обсуждаются три направления: космические исследования и эксперименты на пилотируемых комплексах, фундаментальные и прикладные космических исследования. Рассматриваются основные результаты и перспективы развития казахстанской науки.
Жұмыста Қазақстан Республикасының ғарыштық ғылымының дамуына шолу келтірілген. Мұндағы үш бағыт талқыланған: ғарыштық зерттеулер және ұшқыштық кешендердегі тәжірибелер, фундаменталды және қолданбалы ғарыштық зерттеулер. Қазақстан ғылымының даму болашағы және негізгі нәтижелері қарастырылған.
The paper gives a review of the development of space science in the Republic of Kazakhstan. We discuss three directions: space research and experiments on manned spaceships, fundamental and applied space research. The main results and prospects of development of Kazakhstan science are considered.
Keywords: space research, manned spaceships, astronomical research
Nazarbayev and on the basis of Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Kazakh SSR № 166 from 13.03.1991, a special comprehensive program «Kazakhstan-Space» has been developed. The program laid the basic directions of space exploration in Kazakhstan. For these tasks in 1991, the Institute of Space Research was established, and the founder and first director was the academician U.M.Sultangazin, who made a fundamental contribution to the establishment and development of space research in Kazakhstan.
Currently, one of the priorities of the strategic development of scientific and technical potential of the Republic is to create a space industry. In order to do this the National Space Agency (Kazkosmos) was created in Kazakhstan in 2007, whose activities are primarily aimed at the development and implementation of target space technology and development of space science for socio-economic development of the state .
It should be noted that for the first time the Kazakhstan’s cosmonaut T.A. Musabaev carried out complex studies and experiments on manned space stations during the flight aboard the OC «Mir» “(1994, 1998) and the International Space Station (ISS, 2001) . Space research in Kazkosmos is mainly carried out in JSC «National Center for Space Research and Technology» (JSC «NCSRT»), which consists of four research institutes: V.G. Fesenkov Astrophysical Institute, Institute of Ionosphere, Space Research Institute, Institute of Space Engineering and Technology. JSC «NCSRT» has a great experimental basis: a base of modern experimental equipment, test sites, observatories, laboratories which carry out basic and applied research in the field of space activities on approved priorities.
Space science in Kazakhstan is developing in the framework of State programs for basic and applied research:
«Scientific research and experiments of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the OC «Mir»» -1991, 1994, 1998,
«Development of Space Activity of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2005-2007»,
«Development of scientific and methodological bases of research and utilization of space, Earth exploration from space for technological and socio-economic development of Kazakhstan» 2006-2008,
«Applied research in the field of space activities» in 2008 and 2009,
«Study of systems and objects of near and far space, study of the Earth from space, development of scientific bases of space technology» for 2009-2011.
2. SPACE RESEARCH AND EXPERIMENTS ON MANNED SPACE COMPLEXES
With the permanent support of President Nursultan Nazarbayev and the close collaboration of scientists and specialists of Kazakhstan’s institutions and the Russian space industry organizations, research on manned space complexes were developed, beginning with the flight of Kazakhstan’s cosmonaut T.O. Aubakirov aboard the orbital complex (OC) «Mir» in 1991. Tasks formulation, development of space experiments (SE) were carried out with a participation of scientists and professionals from more than 20 research institutes and organizations in Kazakhstan. So, eight space experiments were carried out in 1994, and twenty three complex experiments were performed in 1998 . In 2001, Kazakhstan was one of the first to implement a program of research and experiments aboard the international space station.
From 1991 to 2001 the cosmonaut T. Musabayev participated in space research and experiments in the following areas: «Physical and technical studies», «Natural-resource monitoring», «Geophysical Research», «Space biotechnology and biomedicine.
Within the framework of works in the area «Physical and technical studies», SE «Temir», «Demedzh/ Ceramics», «Denial / Exec» (1994, 1998) were conducted. These results and later studies formed the basis for the development of new directions «Space Materials» and «Space Device.»
The impact of microgravity on the physical and technical properties of metal melts has been studied. The new layered structures of melts, which can be used for new materials with desired properties were obtained. These materials are of interest to the aerospace industry for the creation of units and elements of new spacecrafts design in Kazakhstan for various purposes, payloads, space launch vehicles and protection .
Later in the process of preparation of scientific programs for Kazakhstan’s cosmonauts to the ISS on the stage of cosmonaut preparation, important results have been yielded. New metallized polyimide materials with high optical reflection coefficient of 82-95% and high surface thermal and electrical conductivity have been created and explored. These materials are the basis for creating a “space sail”, new coatings for equipment operating in open space .
The properties of new superconducting materials that could be used as an electromagnetic protection and for making high-frequency resonators and shells for the space thermonuclear propulsion engine are studied . Tissue mimicking multifunctional polymeric materials (enamel and alanine) have been created and studied to estimate the contribution of various components of the space radiation in the total dose to the ISS .
In future, space instrumentation can be developed on the basis of new materials created and devices designed during the performance of space research and experiments aboard the OC «Mir» and the ISS. These include: the microprocessor testing facility for modeling and regular tests on the radiation resistance of the element base of a new generation with the subsequent their installation aboard Kazakhstan’s satellites for various purposes, a device for purification of the atmosphere on the ISS and the ground-based enclosed spaces on the basis of new adsorptive materials that can simultaneously connect chemical and biological air pollutants. A created high-speed spectrometric and radiometric complex will be used to explore the conditions of the upper atmosphere and to develop recommendations for civil aviation under the conditions of the passage of the regions with thunderstorm activity.
In the framework of the area «Natural resource monitoring», ground-based and space-borne experiments (CE «Biday», «Shop», «Ger», «Echo», «Caspian», «Aral», «Car», «SIYAP», 1991, 1994, 1998) associated with estimates of the state of land cover, water and snow resources of eco-crisis regions were carried out. The results were used to estimate the productivity of agricultural crops in major grain-producing regions. Areas prone to the most active development of desertification processes were identified, and estimates of the state of eco-crisis regions were completed. These works are successfully continued after the creation of the National space monitoring system.
Figure 1. a - Tien-Shan Research Observatory (2800 m above sea level)
In the framework of geophysical studies ground-based and space-borne experiments «Atmosphere», «Plasmasphere», «Shadow», «Field», «Mesosphere» (1994, 1998), whose purpose was studying the physical properties of the atmosphere, ionosphere and mesosphere, were carried out. A series of experiments devoted to the development of physical foundations and methodological concepts into account the influence of the ionosphere on the path of space communications and the accuracy of satellite geodesy and navigation were conducted. Data obtained from the orbital group of «Intercosmos» made possible to reveal signs of low-frequency electromagnetic radiation from an area of earthquakes, with a certain correlation with the intensity of events. Later, based on two-level (ground-based measurements and processing of Earth’s images from the satellites Terra/MODIS) experiments, the study of optical characteristics of the upper atmosphere over areas of a thunderstorm activity has been carried out to determine their relationship with the development of abnormal conditions on spacecrafts for various purposes. The results are used to estimate the likelihood of emergency situations and develop practical recommendations for the operating conditions of civil aircraft and spacecraft for various purposes during the thunderstorm activity [7-11].
A series of experiments in space biotechnology (CE «Muscat», «?нер», 1991, 1994, 1998, 2001) Space Medicine (SE «Densaulyk» - «Tangra», «Ak-Jol», «Alma», «Ala-Tau», 1991, 1994, 1998) and Space Nutrition (SE «Dastarkhan», 1994, 1998, 2001) have been carried out which results became the basis for a new direction in Kazakhstan -«Space biotechnology and space life science».
The aim of SE on the OC «Mir» for space biotechnology was to study the complex influence of space factors on growth and development of cell cultures of wheat and potatoes as the main crops in Kazakhstan. Unique results that allow to study the processes of division, differentiation and metabolism of plant cells and intercellular interaction in weightlessness have been obtained. As a result of practical selection of plant cells, two new potato varieties characterized by particularly resistance to diseases and adverse environmental factors have been created and they are zoned to the eastern and south-eastern Kazakhstan [12-15]. At the pre-stage in the preparation of the program on the ISS, ground-based investigation and assessment of the possible harmful effects of space flight factors on stem cells of astronaut was carried out. A selection of stress-clones of wheat for the creation of promising lines and sending them in the selection process has been done.
Figure 1. b - astrophysical observatory complex (1450 m above sea level)
Research in the field of space medicine is related with the study of processes of adaptation of a cosmonaut to difficult conditions of a flight. Substantial changes in the transport of glucose, protein and lipids on the surface of red blood cells and skin-galvanic potential of certain areas of the skin of a cosmonaut were found. A testing complex for studying the functional state of a person in extreme conditions, including training of astronauts has been created. The results will be used to develop practical recommendations to control the functional state of human being in the aerospace, sports, extreme medicine, as well as in practical public health .
The most important part of the space biomedicine is space nutrition. Scientists of Kazakhstan have developed specialized products and biologically active additives, having directed the properties. They increase the adaptive capacities of cosmonauts and reduce the harmful impact of space flight, including radiation exposure. Developed specialized products are designed to strengthen the immune system of cosmonauts, as well as for those who is in extreme conditions and in remote regions of the Republic (sportsmen, employees of the emergency ministry (EM) and others) [17-18].
3. BASIC RESEARCH
Programs of Basic Research include the following areas: «Astronomical Research of galactic systems, stars and planets», «Physical processes in the Sun-Earth system», «Development of remote sensing methods of nonstationary processes in the atmosphere, biosphere and lithosphere of the Earth», «The development of theoretical foundations of Space Technology and materials».
In the field of astronomical research the study of near and far space is actively carried out. Spectra of more than a hundred active galactic nuclei (AGN) in optical and radio bands of the spectrum have been studied. New phenomena in the nuclei of Seyfert galaxies (NGC 1068 and NGC 4151) have been discovered [19-21]. The results will clarify the spectral classification and the evolutionary status of the selected objects and will help to identify the nature and mechanisms of the observed variability and make changes and specification of the theory of evolution [22-23]. Figure 1 presents the observational systems for the implementation of astrophysical research.
The presence of depression in absorption of ammonia in the northern hemisphere of Jupiter has been discovered and confirmed . Previously unknown features in the nature of the latitudinal distribution of molecular absorption on the largest planets of the solar system have been revealed. For the first time, atlases of profiles of the absorption bands of methane measurements at different latitudes of Saturn were compiled. Particularities in the relations between the parameters of the weak and strong absorption bands and their latitudinal variations have been found .
Figure 2. Ground-based measuring systems: a – radio polygon “Orbita” (3000 m above sea level) is designed to record solar radio emission;
Numerical calculations of models of compact stellar systems with a gas component to simulate stellar systems (clusters) have been done [26-27]. The theory of the evolution of perturbations baryonic matter in the early universe is being developed [28-30]. An independent approach for representation neutrino-antineutrino tachyon conglomerate as dark matter based on anti-scalar field was proposed .
The basis of the theory of motion of a satellite in an unsteady geo-potential subject taking into consideration oblateness of the Earth, the resistance of the atmosphere, light pressure and additional dissipative factors of the orbital evolution has been specified [32-33].
In the study of physical processes in the Sun-Earth system, comprehensive experimental and theoretical studies of dynamic processes in the system are being performed [34-35]. arameters of the geomagnetic field, cosmic rays and electrical processes in the atmosphere are being studied [36-39]. Figure 2 shows experimental systems for measuring geophysical parameters.
The mathematical model of the lower ionosphere is developed. Three-dimensional non-stationary model of the stratosphere, mesosphere and ionosphere is developed on the bases of the hydrodynamic approximation. A semi-empirical model of pulsating components and correlations of fields of concentration, temperature and dynamic field is obtained. The phenomenological model of the response of night F-layer of the ionosphere on passing of large-scale atmospheric gravity waves has been created.
Theoretical and experimental studies of spatial-temporal characteristics of the perturbations of the upper atmosphere caused by the sources of natural and anthropogenic origins are carried out. The results are used for operational forecast radio propagation conditions in the ground-based and space-borne communication systems.
In the framework of the direction «Development of remote sensing methods of nonstationary processes in the atmosphere, biosphere and lithosphere of the Earth», scientific and technological basis for the study of Earth from space and the creation of space applications and systems are being developed. Solutions of inverse problems of transfer of radiation are obtained and an informative content of spectral parameters for vegetation, soil and snow cover on the territory of Kazakhstan were defined.
Figure 2. Ground-based measuring systems: b - station of cosmic rays (3340 m above sea level) is designed for the study of physics of high and ultrahigh energies
The mathematical methods for simulation of dynamic of natural and man-made processes have been created. The techniques of evaluation and recognition of the dust plumes, which are used to predict the rate and extent of desertification, to obtain reliable information about the current state of natural and technogenic complexes of the Aral Sea region have been developed.
In the framework of the direction «Development of theoretical foundations of space technology and materials» a theory of the motion of spacecraft in the gravitational and magnetic fields of the Earth, with additional consideration of the perturbing forces is specified. Mathematical models of spacecraft motion in the Earth’s gravity and magnetic fields, the methods to solve direct and inverse problems of dynamics of spacecraft in the presence of additional forces have been developed. The theory of sustainable software spacecraft motion in the presence of random perturbations is refined, and methods for the creation of a multicomponent model of the motion of spacecraft are developed, besides we obtain solutions of the equation of motion of the body in a gravitational field with a given potential .
Pilot studies and modeling processes of micro-and macro-inhomogeneous melts, depending on heat treatment are carried out. A new phase in the system of zinc-bismuth has been found .
4. APPLIED RESEARCH AND PROSPECTS FOR USING THE RESULTS OF KAZAKHSTAN’S SPACE SCIENCE TO ADDRESS THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROBLEMS
Applied research are being developed in Kazakhstan in the following fields: «Development of research and a pilot database of astrophysical and space research», «Development of scientific and technological support of the establishment of rocketry and space technology», «Creation of the Kazakhstan’s multi-level system of monitoring and forecasting of space weather», «Development of the National System for Space Monitoring», «Creating a system of terrestrial and space-borne geodynamical and geophysical monitoring of the Earth’s crust of Kazakhstan, and system of forecasting mineral deposits».
The development of scientific and experimental base for astrophysical and space research are inextricably linked to the development and creation of hardware, software and techniques for performing space research.
Thus, astrophysical observations will be carried out within the framework of international project «World Space Observatory-Ultraviolet (WSO-UV)». Observations in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range will clarify the proposed physical model of the evolution of the gas shells of variable stars and will help to obtain new data for understanding the evolution of the universe - the nature of dark energy, the active galactic nuclei and the formation of stars and their systems.
A control of near-earth space performed in the analytical center of collecting and processing the coordinate information is the perspective direction. This activity comprises controlling near-Earth space (NES), receiving, processing and analysis of optical and tracking data of geostationary satellites (GSS). Spatial orientation of GSS is permanently controlled and the optical characteristics of some satellites that provide communications, navigation, telecommunications in Russia, countries of Central and South-East Asia, including India, Pakistan, China and Japan are studied.
Ground-based observations of satellites provide the basis for solution of applied problems, including the following: clarifying the theory of motion of cosmic bodies, determining the shape and orientation of the spacecraft in space and related matters for their identification. The database on the space debris and spatial distribution of tracked vehicles and fragments is constantly updated  used in the Space Surveillance Center in Russia and in similar centers in Europe and the USA.
In the framework «the scientific and technological support to the creation of space technology» following work has been done:
- systematic scientific approach to the development of space technology, software and mathematical support of ground and user segments of high-precision satellite navigation; simulations of spacecraft control systems, including software and hardware system of local differential correction of GPS signals in the post-processing mode .
- mathematical models, algorithms and software of systems for space communications, navigation and control of spacecraft and space systems simulation, scientific and methodological support and technology of information processing systems for space research purposes (SSRP);
- scientific and methodological support and the technology of information processing SSRP, including the base of satellite data with their navigational binding; method of mathematical processing of satellite data and measurements from ground stations and their verification on simulated and real data, and model of functioning the payload of a satellite, data acquisition and accumulation on the board of scientific and business information [44-45].
To run radio and geophysical experiments aboard the satellite for scientific purpose, database of specialized data of infrasound measurements and spectral images of the night sky glow is being created. Calculations of the spatial characteristics of acoustic-gravity waves are being conducted and the system of hydrodynamic equations that simulate the responses of the atmosphere to natural and anthropogenic sources of disturbances has been developed [46-47]. Near space is being monitored by measuring key parameters of the ionosphere, upper atmosphere and solar activity to address a wide range of tasks of controlling and forecasting geophysical situation («Space Weather»), as well as research and the search for earthquake precursors.
Multi-level system of monitoring and forecasting of space weather is being created in Kazakhstan. A network of ground-based and satellite-borne monitoring of the near space is being created and the segment-board measurements of natural space ionizing radiation on the basis of the modified prototype-devices are being organized .
Helio-geophysical systems are merged into a single system which allows to monitor the radiation environment of the near space in real time to estimate and adopt preventive measures for reduction of the risk of failure of space-borne and ground-based technological objects. An integrated bank of experimental helio-geophysical data of Kazakhstan’s multi-level monitoring system of the near space is being created.
Creating a national system for monitoring near space, which is part of an international network (Russia, Germany, Italy, France, Greece and other countries), will contribute to forecast «space weather» to inform people about the adverse geophysical factors affecting human health.
The national system of space monitoring of the Republic of Kazakhstan (NSSM) was created and developed. Since 1996, on the basis of licensing agreements Kazakhstan is receiving and processing images from artificial satellites IRS/P6 (India), RADARSAT (Canada), Terra / MODIS and NOAA (USA) in the reception centers located in Almaty and Astana.
NSSM performs monitoring of fires and floods, agricultural land for crop condition assessment and forecast crop yields in major grain-producing regions, eco-crisis regions, infrastructure of the oil and gas sector in urban areas, water, snow and forest resources, flooding and waterlogging seismic regions [49-50].
A ground-based infrastructure that provides regular coverage throughout the territory of Kazakhstan by space images with a resolution of up to 5 m for the control of agricultural lands, recognition of fires and floods, foci of desertification has been created [51-53].
In order to predict the yield, surface data is collected at sub-satellite polygons. A method of evaluating the reliability of the results of thematic interpretation of satellite images to assess the state of water resources and grain production has been developed .
New efficient technology of radiometric correction and high-precision geo-referencing of remote sensing data, structural analysis of satellite imagery, the formation of large-scale digital elevation models, including for the purposes of air navigation are introduced.
In the long run a network of departmental and territorial situation centers of space monitoring for prompt attention of the executive bodies at various levels and management decisions will be created .
In recent years, Kazakhstan is being successfully developed a new promising area of research - a system of satellite and terrestrial geodynamic and geophysical monitoring of the Earth’s crust in Kazakhstan.
It deployed a network of GPS-synchronized receiver (GPS, GLONASS) and software system for receiving and processing the information to analyze the stress - strain state of the earth’s crust in the Almaty earthquake-prone region, which can be used to forecast the likelihood of accidents and emergencies at oil and gas complexes.
A geological and geophysical database for the south and south-eastern Kazakhstan has been formed, a software package for processing of ionospheric data based on GPS-measurements, a database of background and the seismogenic ionospheric disturbances based on measurements from ground-based GPS-receivers and equipment for vertical sounding of the ionosphere were developed.
Designed hardware and software package to forecast seismic processes of natural and man-made, based on data from satellite geodesy, analysis of variations of the stress state of the crust and lithosphere-ionosphere relationships, monitoring of the ionosphere, the magnetosphere, the electric field of the Earth can be used to search for earthquake precursors and prognosis of emergency situation in earthquake-prone regions of the country.
Work on creating terrestrial and space-borne system for monitoring the state of stress areas of the upper horizons of the crust in the territory of industrial agglomerations, urban areas, including in cities with high-rise buildings, the results of which can be used in industrial and civil construction, construction of large reservoirs and hydraulic structures are being conducted.
A system of satellite GPS-monitoring surface area of Almaty was developed. Mathematical methods of analysis of stress-strain state of the earth’s crust and the formation technique of regularly updated large-scale space images of urban areas are implemented.
Currently, a system of the satellite engineering-geological monitoring of areas with intensive hydrocarbon and mineral resources production, large reservoirs and hydraulic structures is being developed. A comprehensive analysis of the stress state of the earth’s crust, select a region, based on the data of satellite geodesy and remote sensing is being carried out [61-62].
It is developed:
recommendations on the organization of a network monitoring and satellite monitoring of geodynamic motions of modern Caspian Sea region, including on the territory of extraction of hydrocarbons,
methods of data processing of measurements of contemporary movements the Earth’s surface for a variety of geodynamic problems in the Caspian region and located in a seismically active zone, for example, created a three-dimensional model of the Bartogayskoe reservoir.
Complex technology of satellite-borne and terrestrial monitoring and remote sensing systems can be used for prediction and exploration of new ore and hydrocarbon deposits, estimates of the amount of hydrocarbon deposits.
Currently, work is being conducted to establish the International Regional Monitoring Centre of the Caspian region with the participation of Kazakhstan and Russia. Establishment of the Centre will allow to develop a unified approach to the development of natural resources of the Caspian region and to minimize or eliminate the risks associated with the regime of exploitation of oil fields and the entire infrastructure in general, to carry out continuous monitoring of geo-environmental and geodynamic state of the environment in areas of the Caspian region, North and Middle Caspian.
In Kazakhstan, as well as in other states, there are unsolved problems which adversely effect on the use of scientific research to address the socio-economic challenges the country and the development of domestic innovation capacity, including:
incompleteness of the majority of scientific developments and technologies that can be used by consumers, both domestic and foreign;
lack of modern, efficient mechanisms for the introduction of new technology and developments in the real sector of economy;
lack of infrastructure promoting innovative projects, networks of real venture fund financing (venture funds), financial mechanisms to support projects.
The problem is that nowadays the space industry in Kazakhstan has no such structures and mechanisms that are able to bring scientific research to market, its commercialization. It should be established a small series production of competitive high technology products in order to the obtained domestic developments and technologies could be used to solve practical problems. With the development of appropriate mechanisms and structures tie between the scientific and technical and production areas the results will be used to address socio-economic challenges the country.
Kazakhstan is ready to enter the world space community for its developments and technologies, which we think can be used by other states.
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