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IDEA OF INDEPENDENCE AND «NATIONALIST» LITERATURE

УДК 821.512.122.09

Рассмотрена национальная идея казахской литературы, позволившая сохранить единство народа, достичь независимости и суверенности страны. Идея эта была востребована и во время становления казахской литературы, и в так называемом ханском периоде истории национального искусства слова, и на современном этапе развития.

Жұмыста мемлекеттің тәуелсіздігіне қол жеткізу үшін, халықтың бірлігін сақтауға септігін тигізетін қазақ әдебиетінің ұлттық ойы қарастырылған. Бұл ой қазақ әдебиетінің қалыптасу уақытында, ұлттық сөз өнерінің даму тарихындағы хандық кезеңде және дамудың қазіргі кезеңінде де аса талап қойылатын мәселе.

Keywords: national idea, cultural-literary heritage, humanism

To the inquisitive look studying history of the Kazakh literature since ancient years to today one national idea continuously developing during all time is appreciable. Its essence is preservation of unity of people, achievement of independence and the sovereignty of the country. This idea inspired people to struggle for freedom and protect the national advantage. It is undoubtedly that its sources are in ancient Turkic cultural-literary heritage. This idea has been demanded both during becoming the Kazakh literature and in so-called Khan the period of history of national art of a word. The voice of protest against policy of systematic gradual capture of the Kazakh grounds, deprivations of people of primordial territory sounded openly. It is well-known that opposition of Makhambet and khan Dzhangir is caused by aversion of the poet of orders of colonialism. Such open antagonism had not success. Revolts under leadership Syrym, Isatay-Makhambet, Set, Beret, Kenesary-Naurysbay have been severely suppressed. However the dream of freedom did not die away, struggle for it did not stop.

The internal protest and amplifying force of pressure of the developed circumstances have generated the literature of «Zar zaman» («Thirsting epoch» or «The Epoch of grieves»). The mood of «Zar zaman» has captured large sections of the population in second half of XIX centuries. It seemed that the heart of mourning people is capable to state only the grief after annoying losses. «Such mournful condition gave rise of sad poets, increased number of Zar zamaners», - wrote M.Auezov [1]. Dulat, Shortanbay, Murat and other well-known akyns of that time represented a pity life of oppressed people, dreamed about the past, and did not trust to the future. They found the reason of such pitiable condition in an inept guidance of people, accusing governors who could not follow on a way of «Abilpeiz and Ablay, two sharp-sighted falcons».

It is difficult to assume that people of great intellect such as Chokan, Ibray, and Abay did not know about deprivations of people. Having seen futility of the open antagonism, they have selected other way of achievement of independence. It consists in a finding of common language with Russian, achievements of equality due to development of their culture, a science and education. In the beginning of XX century the yoke of colonialism pressed harder, forcible russification of the population, withdrawal of the fertile areas in favour of immigrants from the Central Russia began to gain in strength. Ruthless colonial oppression of the backward country has raised the question about the existence of Kazakh people in the future.

Historian M.Kojgeldiev in occasion of the given policy has pertinently noted, that its main purpose was” transformation of Russian and European immigrants into a stronghold of the majestic sociopolitical claims, destruction into the Kazakh society of the forces resisting colonialism, russification of the population, planned to transform the Kazakh earth into a geographical part of empire” [2].

In an interval of 1860-1917 45 million hectares of the fertile areas have been forcibly withdrawn from primordial owners and transferred in possession of immigrants that has brought appreciable changes in national structure of inhabitants. Kazakhs at that time made 73,5 % of the population in the territory, this figure every year decreased. Such fate was prepared not only for Kazakhs, but also for all foreigners of Russian empire. Some of them have lost the native language, have accepted Christianity, and became russified. Position inside of Russia was aggravated. The discontent with an imperial regime grew. Complication of capitalist attitudes and strengthening of appetite of imperialism have rendered appreciable influence on easing of imperial authority.

The empire force suppressed popular uprisings, adhered to rough policy that has led to a wide circulation of revolutionary excitements which result became bourgeois revolutions of the beginning of XX century. Russian revolution has added oil to fire of struggle of foreigners for the independence.

Already during revolutions of 1905-1907, in A.Bukeikhanov’s opinion, «all steppe has been involved in sphere of policy, and grasped by a stream of emancipating movement» [3].

The effective form of the public consciousness, played the leading part in awakening people, was the Kazakh national literature.

The Kazakh literature of the beginning of XX century adhered of educational, democratic Abay’s sights has filled up with their idea of political strike, condemned colonialism and national oppression, struggled with ignorance by education of people. It is pleasant, that literature became the initiator of political strike for national self-determination led by A.Baitursynov and M. Dulatov. One of them wished to wake of dozing people by importunate mosquito sound. The second-in all voice proclaimed call « Regain consciousness, the Kazakh ». These ideas fed and gave force to the Kazakh progressive literature of the beginning of XX century. Poets-populists studied at Ahmet and Mirjakup. Appeal to struggle against colonialism, for becoming of the country on a way of free development, education, to an alignment on advanced people; the critic of deprivations of a national life became defined for the literature of the given period.

Ahmet-poet name became known after an output in 1909 in Petersburg its books «Kyryk mysal» («Forty fables») which consisted of translations of I.A.Krylov’s fables on Kazakh language. Ahmet was not only the translator. He skillfully interpreted idea and a plot of fables with reference to then Kazakh validity, public realities, and characteristic features of people of time. The author castigated ignorance and slavery, proved advantages of education, called for active struggle against colonialism. Wide circulation of the book in steppe M.Auezov has estimated so: it was the first word in spirit of the revolution, reached up to all layers of Kazakh people» [4].

Today, looking through this fable, once again you are convinced about irrelevance of recognition of A.Baitursynov only the translator of the Russian fabulist. It is not necessary to forget, that the fable genre has a world history of development. In each country can name classics which improving, finishing this genre has transformed it into property of the national literature. A.Baitursynov can be enlisted to number of these fabulists rightfully. The wandering plots which have passed from Aesop to Laphonten, from it to Krylov, have been transformed by forces of these authors in own national plots. V.Belinsky has sharply opposed who considered Krylov only as translator of Laphonten. It has convincingly proved Russian character of fables, truly Russian sense and values of many images and words [5].

Analyzing Ahmet’s fables, it is possible to be convinced that borrowing the maintenance at Krylov he used the Kazakh speech expressive means. He has distinctly seen negative features Krylov’s characters, similar public injustice at the fellow tribesmen.

Ahmet is the poet of the social truth who has deeply opened an image of time, a society, people. The poet by means of an image of a free steppe bird has shown a condition of people. Historical circumstances of an epoch formed of Ahmet as the courageous and resolute fighter. The advanced person of time, Ahmet has created a new image of the fighter-citizen in the poems.

Mirjakup Dulatov was the true friend and ideological colleague of Ahmet on all extent of political, educational, and literary-publicist activity. Both of them studied at Russian school, began the labour way the teacher of an elementary school. They distributed ideas of enlightenment, opposed an arbitrariness of imperial authorities. Mirjakup in 1906 in Petersburg participated in the organization of “Serke” newspaper. In first number (1907) of newspapers he has published the poem «Zhastarga» (“For Young”). In the second number of newspaper he has printed article « Our purposes » where the sharp criticism of imperial authority has been stated. Therefore the number has been confiscated and destroyed. So began M.Dulatov’s poetic, publicistic way. In 1909 he has let out the well-known book of verses « Ojan, Kazak» («Wake up, the Kazakh») which became most widely widespread among Kazakhs. Such popularity of the book is connected with its maintenance where the appeal to struggle for independence against colonialism has sounded, the truth of a heavy life of people was shown. The main idea of the book was read in its name. Leitmotif of the book is struggle against imperial colonialism. Poet critically estimates history and traditions. Burdens and deprivations of Kazakh people from imperial authority are shown from the different parties.

Illegitimacy of actions of tsarism, the unfair election system stimulating enmity, stratification of people has been exposed by poet. The output from such situation he sees in education, equality, replacement of the old form of training on new, allowing raising a level of knowledge in Russian and Kazakh languages. The book forbidden in our country, in 1930 has been published in Turkey. Inspired by popularity of the first book, Mirjakup has seen also the lacks. Therefore the following collections of verses “Azamat”, “Term” have shown new searches of the author in increase of an art level of products. Continuing idea of civilization in new verses, the poet opens a heavy life of an epoch through a sincere life of the person (the lyrical hero) by means of its perception instead of a narration from the author. The lyrical hero - the person who has devoted the life to struggle for national happiness, for national interests. In the book «Unfortunate Zhamal» the author speaks about equality among the Kazakh youth. «Unfortunate Zhamal» has proclaimed occurrence of a new genre - the novel in the Kazakh literature. From 1913 he lives in Orenburg. Having met there with A.Baitursynov, they let out the newspaper “Kazakh”. They together with A.Bukeikhanov have published papers about a social life of Kazakhs at colonialism, illegal actions of imperial authority. Any problem, concerning destiny of Kazakh people in the beginning of XX century, has not remained outside of a field of vision of these figures. All these themes and the facts became materials their publications having obvious orientation to struggle for independence and freedom. Colleague of A.Baitursynov and M. Dulatov on struggle against colonial mode Аlikhan Bukeikhanov was the prominent public figure of time. In the childhood he studied at Karkaralinsk Russian School (1879-1886), then he has continued training in Omsk (1886-1890), graduate from the Petersburg timber institute (1890-1894). During training in capital of Russia Alikhan takes part in student’s disturbances. «In a youth A.Bukeikhanov was the radical revolutionary, a socialist and a member of anti-Russian literary group «Zar Zaman», - writes the Society of studying of Central Asia of the Oxford University [6]. After institute with settled political views Alikhan has returned to Omsk where he was convinced in cruelty of the tsarism oppressed Kazakh people. He participated in expeditions, has traveled the Kazakh steppes in structure of Expedition (1896-1901) which was engaged in the account of 12 districts of Akmolinsk and Semipalatinsk areas. He has established communication with Omsk branch of Russian geographical society and written papers on history of Kazakh people.

In the first years of the Soviet authority (1926-1927) Academy of Sciences of the USSR has involved A.Bukeikhanov for studying of union and autonomous republics. It has prepared detailed work about the nature, economy, histories and traditions of inhabitants of Adaevsky district (Atyrau, Mangistau areas).

The close acquaintance with huge territory has given Alikhan the big material for studying the deep purposes of imperial colonialism. It has combined its hard position against territorial and other claims of autocracy concerning the country. He sharply opposes immigrants, accuses administration in no acceptance of the measures promoting formation and improvement of a life of Kazakhs, and offers new ways of management of the country. In the beginning of a century he participates in excitements against tsar, signs the petition, and collects around of itself political force from national intelligence. Selected by the Deputy in the State Duma, Alikhan skillfully uses the right, openly states the sights. Papers published in the newspaper “Kazakh”, mention these topical questions.

Such sights of the Kazakh intelligency about progress and education, independence, free self-determination have formed a basis for Imperial, then the Soviet authority in charge by their “nationalists”. The literature attached to these ideas was defined as “nationalist” too. Well known cultural-literary heritage of Kazakhs, Alikhan together with Ahmet and Mirjakup has written substantial papers about the national literature. On the basis of samples of oral national creativity and modern literary works he tried to open freedom-loving feelings of national culture, engaged in translation.

Being the opponent of Tsarizm policy they did not touch honour and dignity of Russian people. This intelligency trained at Russian schools, did not allocate itself among other people, did not suppose interethnic attacks. They were not nationalists, but the democrats loving people, putting above all national interests.

The literature created by Ahmet and Mirjakup, publicism of Alikhan in the newspaper “Kazakh” have woken the country. There were the thinking, well-educated, young talented forces actively continuing affair and ideas of the tutor-guides. S.Toraigyrov, M.Zhumabaev, S.Donentaev, M.Seralin, S.Kubeev, Z.Aimauytov, S.Seifullin, B.Mailin, and M.Auezov have enriched the literature by thematic, genre pretentious novelties; have created the developed picture of Kazakh people. They condemned backwardness, opposed a colonial regime, have highly raised the banner of idea about independence.

In this path talent of Sultanmakhmut is especially bright. It hostilely and critically concerned to ignorance, stagnancy, heavy destiny of the woman-kazakh, became the known educator.

Results of burdensome reflections underlie creative plans of Sultanmakhmut. In its novels national disasters and sincere participation of the author are sharply felt. In «Beauty Kamar» the writer peers into destiny of the Kazakh woman, convicts ugly forms of ignorance. In work «Who is guilty?» he states the ideas about a social system of a life on an example of governors of that time.

Together with Sultanmakhmut in alashorda movement participated and devoted to it the verses Sabit Donentaev. In his works the destiny of people and sharp contradictions of the reality are shown. He concerned to an imperial colonial policy with disbelief, struggled against administrative violence.

He often uses allegories and other conditional forms in disclosing the truth of the real life. It realized that the truth on the party of strong and authority having. He compares a condition of people with image which has appeared between a precipice and fire.

The special place in the literature is borrowed with Magzhan Zhumabaev’s poetry. Being the witness of many main events of an epoch, he deeply experienced for destiny of the country and people. He did not perceive psychology of colonialism, dreamed about freedom for Kazakhs. His verses are fanned by an idea of freedom.

Within the Soviet authority he has not believed to appeals of new authority of justice and equality. The poet also could not understand a policy of division of the nation that contradicted Magzhan’s national sights. The dream of independence has been broken. Grief and mountain have captured the poet. The artist painfully searched for a way out from a situation. Verses «Korkut’s grave», «Injured soul», «Lull me, death» are written to this period. He has seen the steppe in emaciated condition. The wind informed sounds of death, Kazakh steppe seem as on one’s death-bed. Accord with creations of Russian symbolists and decadents is appreciable in these motives of poet.

However it is not necessary to consider these motives alien to people, the vital truth as they have been born by historical circumstances. The poet perceived tragedy of the nation as own. His poetry breathes, lives by love to the ground, person and country. The position of the true friend to people is felt. The philantrophy, glorification of love and nature are strong connected by national images. Lived and created in the inconsistent and contrast world, Magzhan was and remains the national singer and poet dreamed about national independence.

Z.Aimauytov and M.Auezov let out magazine “Abay” (1918) during training in seminary. The verses, stories and papers devoted to freedom and independence were published. Zhusupbek’s poems “The call”, «The Marseillaise of fighters», become then the appeal of struggle for freedom and independence of Kazakh people, have been written at this time.

Zhusupbek’s plays and novels are directed on the decision of problems of independent development of the country; representation of the images followed a way of progress and education. The first Kazakh novel of the European style belongs to its pen. The images of representatives of the youth which left the national environment and has found the way in vital trials have been created in novels «Akbilek» and «Kartkozha». In a prologue of M.Auezov’s play «Karagos» (192б) a monologue of the old man by name the History defines the critical attitude of the author to the new reality; the former free life of Kazakhs becomes famous.

Preservation of the sovereignty of people, national advantage, great honour of the nation was dream of all Mukhtar’s life. He became the great Kazakh writer who has acquainted all world with people, with nomadic culture, with statehood of Kazakhs.

Meditations over destiny of the Kazakh people which is being under colonial oppression, was the main problem and in Sh.Kudaiberdiev’s, M.Kopeev’s, N.Ormanbetov’s and G.Karasheva’s works of literature. The named poets in the beginning of a century expressed the solidarity with struggle for independence. The sympathetic attitude to ordinary people, accusation of persons having authority, appeal to education and courageous statement of questions of unity were the general world outlook installation of these masters of a word.

Shakarim was known as the realist and the talented poet who has passed poetic Abay’s school. Main attention of Shakarim was involved to problems of spiritual perfection of the Kazakh society and education of wide layers of the population. On pages «Aikap», “Kazakh”, «Abay» and other editions were issued its papers deeply opening the reasons of contradictions of the reality, conflicts and civil strifes among Kazakhs. In critical realism of Shakarim the Abay’s approach and pathos are visible. He struggled against a harm and violence over defenseless people; he was pained by enmity and disorder among Kazakhs.

Shakarim has subjected to the deep analysis both falling of tsar, and creation of alashorda autonomies. Two songs written in 1917, he has named: «The banner of freedom shines», «Morning of freedom has raised». In the first poem there is both pleasure in occasion of falling tsarism and confusion in occasion of tomorrow day. He is disturbed by not clear situation, he concerns with fear to attempts of self-determination.

There are hope and edification in the second poem: «follow the fair leader, forget about enmity, gossips, lie, study at the advanced countries, aspire to become the independent country».

M.Zh.Kopeev - the poet who has devoted many sharp words to dangerous consequences of Russian colonialism. Published in 1907 in Kazan books “Condition”, “Seen in a long life” and “Who possesses Sary Arka” almost completely are devoted to this theme.

Narmambet Ormanbetov by M.Auezov’s definition was closing movement «Zar zaman”,” the poet, played its last melody». Narmambet widely used concepts of «Zar zaman», «Ker zaman» which defined the further degradation and degeneration of people. The policy of colonialism is the reason of it.

The generation of founders of the so-called Soviet literature was brought up on idea of independence. Opposition to colonialism, idea of building of the free country, people call-up to enlightenment, fidelity to national interest in the new literature became main themes. Such it is a lot of instances in the Kazakh poetry. Some poets were close to alashorda, others watched for events. Beimbet Mailin was from among sympathizing, and then kept away poets. In formation of B.Mailin’s outlook a major role the newspaper “Kazakh” has played.

Saken in this schedule occupied a separate position. Many his compositions are public on contents. He also sharply spoke against Russian colonialism, putting above national interest and idea of independence. In the Soviet time he openly stated the sights. If Ahmet and Mirjakup leaded anticolonial driving Saken was the first who openly opposed the distortions of the Soviet formation which are violating the rights of the Kazakh people. It is only one of basils of activity of the poet. Saken together with the Kazakh communists has signed “the Letter of fourteen” to the secretary of a Central Party Committee. In the letter they stated such ethnic questions of reality as absence of effective measures on enriching of a state of the people, shortage of books in Kazakh, domination of Russian staff in administrative personnel, insufficient discovering of national schools and tendered clerical work to execute in Kazakh. Assertion of Kazakh on a level with Russian in 1924 became consequence of this letter. The idea about the independence, acutely sounding in the beginning of XX century, was a base of developing of the national literature, formed traditions of realism. The literature was not the propagandist of ideas, but opened its artistic images. It has raised to the truthful representation of the reality, has demonstrated spiritual growth of people aimed to freedom and independence. Accusation of ignorance and backwardness advanced a critical direction of realism. The didactic motive was less watched, became alive modes more. There was a genre developing, there were new genres. . In analysis of a cultural heritage, foremost traditions of the literature criticism principles hardened. In this direction M.Auezov, H.Dosmuhamedov, A.Bukeikhanov, S.Seifullin’s works were a good beginning. The subsequent new literature sang of spirit of civilization, humanism and democratic sights, idea of unity and love of the Native land. Independence of which dreamed today in our hands. The great merit in it belongs to the first president of the country N. Nazarbaev. We hope that independence desired by our people will prosper.

REFERENCES

1. Auezov М. The collected works in 50 volumes. Almaty: Gylym, 2001. 206 p.

2. Кrigeldiev М. Alash revolt. Almaty: Sanat, 1995. 26 p.

3. Bukeikhanov A. Almaty: Kazakh encyclopedia. 1995. 75 p.

4. Auezov М. The collected works in 50 volumes. V.2. Almaty: Gylym, 1998. 67 p.

5. Belinsky V.G. The collected works in 3 volumes. V.2. М., 1948. P. 715.

6. Bukeikhan A. Tatsdamaly. Almaty. 1995.

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