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J. AUBAKIROVA’S INTERVIEW TO JOURNAL “SCIENCE OF CENTRAL ASIA”

The renowned Kazakh pianist Jania Aubakirova is the laureate of international competitions, People’s Artist of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Holder of Order of Arts and Letters of France, Ekaterina the Great Order of II degree, rector of the Kazakh National Kurmangazy Conservatoire, professor. At present pianist Jania Aubakirova is the one of the brightest classical music performers of the Central Asia. She leads concert activity as a pianist along with the great activity in social life not only of Kazakhstan, but also on international level.

Jania, please, tell about Akhmet Zhubanov’s place in world musical culture, about the contribution to a cultural heritage of Republic

Akhmet Kuanovich is a founder of classical music education, the educator, the large cultural person. I do not know so well history, but I know, that on this outstanding personality there were persecutions in due time. He was the first rector of a conservatory, then ceased to be the rector, and then again became. In my opinion, it was the period of Stalin reprisals. Аzhar Аkhmetovna (Akhmet Kuanovich’s daughter) told me that it was necessary to disappear, be kept, survive. At that time there were persecutions on intelligence. He had a straightforward character. Naturally, there were envious persons who could not suffer its talent. Then as I heard he supported natives of the Western Kazakhstan. Actually a folk music is better developed there. On my operational experience in a conservatory I know that the most good national instrumentalists there from. kjuys, tokpe-кjuys there from too. A. Zhubanov has organized for the first time an orchestra of national instruments. Нe studied in Moscow and saw, how the orchestra of Russian national instruments works. Russian music traditionally develops with an orchestra. He by analogy has created an orchestra of the Kazakh national instruments. This orchestra worked remarkably. The program of our Conservatory is directed on studying of compositions with an orchestra, works with an orchestra. In all regions there are orchestras. But last 20 years or there can be even more our musical theorists all time oppose orchestras. They speak that it mismatches our mentality, kills our culture, spirit of our music that never Kazakhs sang chorus, did not play with an orchestra, did not dance, i.e. our art is individual: individual improvisations, individual bright execution. It would seem they too are right, that Kazakhs should not be learned notes. It kills the Kazakh musical soul. They start to study notes, to execute Russian products, western, to play F. Liszt, K. Saint-Saens, on dombra play as on a balalaika, on kobyz - as on a violin. And this all too last 20-25 years is criticized by our theorists. Listening the different opinions on this occasion, I have asked of E. Rakhmadiev, the national actor of the USSR: «Erkegali Rakhmadievich, what is the dispute in occasion of traditional music, the orchestra is necessary or not necessary». He answers: «Jania, that exists and accepts by people means it is necessary; no theorists will cancel any theories, if people perceives, it means is necessary. That present and talented - will sustain all». And consequently I began to understand that any misunderstandings and disputes between professionals can be, but cultural process cannot be stopped. Akhmet Kuanovich has created a new thing; he has united the isolated Kazakh instruments in an orchestra. He knew that in the world there are symphonic orchestras, an orchestra of Russian national instruments, for certain there are different national orchestras. We all life lived in Soviet Union, therefore the euro-centrist thinking was generated at us when all the most interesting is only in the Europe and all we should aspire to the European standard and thinking. Recently the big Asian world, Arabian, African opens for us. We would like to study this material, but materials practically are not present. There is no material about Kazakhstan; it is not enough Japanese, Chinese materials. Here China - the whole planet, they there in general can live without any world. They have the professional composers, the notes, publishing houses of European and own Chinese music. Certainly, the largest conservatories study classics. In China a lot of the European classics, but it does not suppress their own music. And here other example - Tajikistan. When the Soviet Union has collapsed they have lost all classical, such as Turkmenistan. They have only a folk music. Now has passed 10-20 years, they ask everything, the Moscow conservatory, Novosibirsk, us: “Help us, we wish to restore classics, experts a little”. There are in history such turns back, and then all comes back. The culture suffers from different political and public shocks.

Whether the work done by Akhmet Zhubanov is known to wide musical public in full and whether popularization of its musical heritage is spent? What research work is spent by a Conservatoire and other Kazakhstan musical establishments of RK concerning to A. Zhubanov’s creative heritage?

Actually he has very good followers. They are rather cultural people, they understand, and that if they will not do it, very few people will do. Besides in a conservatory it is a lot of followers here this Aktyubinsk school. His daughter Gaziza Akhmetovna (the known composer in Kazakhstan, the national actress of the USSR, the national actress of Kazakhstan) has very strongly changed structure of a conservatory. It is a lot of children from Аktobe, Аtyrau, the Western Kazakhstan work at faculty of national instruments. Certainly, we aspire, that have been presented both southern schools, and the central Kazakhstan have been involved, and east, i.e. in the conservatoire program all schools are studied, which exist even zhyr. In general until recently we did not know it. Zhyr approaches us a little with shamanizm culture, with Buryat people. In general I have understood, and this is my belief, that the Kazakh culture exists not separately, it is in family of Turkic people and in wider family of Asian people. When I go to Japan, Korea, China I visit museums of national instruments. All instruments there type kobyz, dombra or syrnay, but more longly or more shortly. Strangely enough, it appears that we not so are close to Turks musically, we are closer to Chinese’s, Japanese, Koreans. When we spend scientific, scientifically-practical conferences, we have not only reports, not only the master-classes, but we have also concerts. There come Japanese, at own expense come, cooperate, have not a rest, 24 hours go with the camera. We ask, why? They speak: “Sources of our music originate from your region”. Many people so speak. Here, for example, Japanese. They do, while others argue. Others put forward any ideas, do opening, and Japanese introduce them. They at times know better our culture at times, than ourselves. Because how many we studied it, it is a little: we do not know as, whence has arisen, where there was a basis, what were 2-3 centuries ago. We know Tattimbet, Dina, Кurmangazy and all. Here therefore popularization is necessary. We do in this direction much, every year we carry out Zhubanov’s weeks, festivals, we play compositions not only his, but also of Gaziza Akhmetovna. The first, that I have made, when became the rector, I have issued Gaziza Akhmetovna’s book «My world is music». I have found sponsors for this purpose. We have a greater book about Akhmet Zhubanov, it has published 2-3 years ago to the 100 anniversary of the composer. Everything that is connected with Akhmet Kuanovich and Gaziza Akhmetovna is much better, than with other composers. It is all a merit of relatives. They forget nothing, they work. The literature is now published in the Kazakh language, it is difficult me to estimate quality, but I think that quantity will inevitably pass into quality. Gaziza Akhmetovna’s and Akhmet Kuanovich’s compositions were republished. In our publishing house there are volumes of сompositions (quartets, symphonies, and chamber). Now such favorable time for culture. Everything that was not done earlier, now done. We have not time to make all at once, but every year we do more and more. In this year orchestra of national instruments, which Akhmet Kuanovich has created, will go to Bonn, Berlin, Hamburg. In the past year it has visited Turkey with 8 concerts. The year before last it was in China at 4 Universities. In half an hour the organizer of the Chinese concerts with shout called to me, and shouted: «It is more tremendous!! It something!!! It is a fantasy, such success, we are afraid, that a hall will take down». It was in Urumqi area. The conservatory now is well financed, constantly leaves abroad by great collectives. Last year we have visited San Francisco, Los Angeles, Boston, Washington, and New York. It is an orchestra from 100 people, students. The chorus from 45 people went to Venice. Now the best is how national music develops. I am as the professional can tell that this development occurs on a wave of national consciousness, self-identification. As though we played classics, populists - they it is better, they are free, they are brilliant. Now it is required. Earlier they were constraining as though apologized. You know, how the Kazakh language, and the Kazakh music was used. Put for a tick in the beginning of a concert. I remember their look. And now - both virtuosity, and any brightness, philosophical depth. And there can be they not so are good in the theory and in judgment. But in game, virtuosity, depth and the talent they are not equal to somebody. In the Soviet system when Akhmet Kuanovich lived, there was a standardized education system. It wanted that education was not on the basis of an amateur sight, that there was a system. Therefore the Conservatory, college, school have been organized. In the world in general seldom happens, that in one conservatory there were a classics and a folk music, very seldom. Here Georgia has a classical conservatory. In Azerbaijan there are 2 different conservatories on classical music and national. They were divided. In Beijing, for example, there are national conservatory and classical. But we consider, that we help from each other, are necessary each other and we exist together. Now with the countries of the Central Asia wish to communicate more. When we acted in Carnegie-hall, in New York passed the Kazakh-American investment forum. When we acted in Carnegie-hall, in New York passed the Kazakh-American investment forum. Its participants were at our concert in the evening. Next day the forum has begun according to: «We congratulate Kazakhstan! The concert of your musicians is a unforgettable event. We still had strong impression about cultural achievements of your youth. If in Kazakhstan such youth, means at this country the big future». Here so the culture is connected with all … both with image, and with diplomacy, and with a policy.

How Akhmet Zhubanov’s music is perceived by youth? Whether festivals and competitions of A. Zhubanov’s music are spent?

Competitions and festivals of a name of A. Zhubanov are spent constantly. It is impossible to tell, that Zhubanov’s music is perceived easily as popular music, all the same it is professional music, classical music, professional, it complicated for perception. There are also more simple compositions for perception. Here, for example, Zhubanov-Khamidi an opera «Аbay». It is on the basis of national melodies and so easily perceived. Besides Akhmet Kuanovich is easier perceived than Gaziza Akhmetovna. Gaziza Akhmetovna has received deep composer school in Moscow, she wrote as modern writers. Language of its products not only national, but also international. Complex thinking, complex forms. Certainly, Gaziza Akhmetovna - one of the maximum achievements of ours composer schools. This school easily is not perceived, as any classics, it is perceived difficultly.

Whether A. Zhubanov’s innovation in execution by an orchestra not only national repertoire, but also Russian and foreign classic compositions continues?

They certainly play, but have reduced quantity of Russian and foreign compositions because consider that it is necessary to execute more the Kazakh repertoire. Russian and foreign authors were when all only began to show any skills: we are able to play Mozart too. And now it is not necessary to do it, now there are chic processings, orchestrations of one’s compositions. They play basically Kazakh kjuys. However it is impossible to tell, that they have very wide repertoire. I somehow frankly talked with Karshyga Akhmedjarov (the known Kazakh composer, kjuy player, dombra player, National actor of РК): «Каrshyga-agay, why you include so many compositions of foreign authors, why Mozart?» He speaks: «Boringly only kjuys play». I to him speak: «If you so speak, what others will speak?». Into that Soviet time have hammered such complex, that if you national, you not absolutely professional. To be professionals, you should play the western classics or Russian. Instead of deeply studying the folk music, they were engaged by classical, gave the children on classical branch. «Though I am a folklore player, let my child will be the pianist, the violinist». Really, fine conductors and pianists have grown from them. National musicians had greater complexes during Soviet time. It is considered that national is easily, and here play the rhapsody of the Liszt. The youth already protests, they not against, they are ready to listen in execution of Russian or symphonic orchestra. In fact practically there are a lot of the duplicated West-European and Russian repertoire. The orchestra of national instruments played Mozart’s symphonies, a concert for a piano with an orchestra. And besides, it is ideology. I asked my daddy (Jakhia Aubakirov, economist, Doctor of Economics, Professor, academician of National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan): «Why you did not learn us to the Kazakh language?». He speaks: «Because at that time there was such sensation, that through certain time everyone will speak only Russian, education should be received only Russian». The daddy began as everybody, he did not know Russian, was born in village, has learnt Russian, and became the research worker. It is a question which should be understood. To understand, instead of to criticize, not abuse, and demand… Therefore at that time it was innovation. Now other time. Folklore players understand that it is better to make qualitatively orchestration of one’s compositions. We have very interesting group “Тuran”. They are national musicians, but they are not traditional musicians, they are modern national musicians. We have placed them in “youtube”, the plenty of inquiries on this orchestra. From Turkey and China call, America, Japan and Germany look. All world speaks: “Good fellows”. In a Latin write “Zhasaisyndar”. Young nice children compose, interpret in a new fashion, improvise, do new compositions.

A. Zhubanov has a talented pupils, fine children and grandsons, among them both musicians, and scientists who are not less talented than himself. How you consider, these are genes, special power or education?

Really, there are also pianists. Rosa Akhmetovna was the pianist. But the most well-known and talented is Alan Buribaev (son of pianist Sholpan Bulatovna Zhubanova and violoncellist Askar Buribaev, the great-grandson of composer Ahmet Zhubanov and the grandnephew of composer Gaziza Zhubanova, and also the grandson of the chemist, academician of National Academy of Sciences Bulat Zhubanov, the main conductor of the Symphonic orchestra of Astana, 2004-2007 - the Meiningen general music director, from 2007 - Head of Norchoping symphonic orchestra, and from 2008 - also the Netherlands Orchestra of Brabant). I think that genes and special power play the important role. Each generation receives own education. Alan has received education in the Europe. I remember that in the childhood he would not like play on a violin. The family during reorganization of country has gone to Greece. There Аskar Buribaev, his father (Vice-minister of culture and information of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the known violoncellist), has borrowed an education of son that he listened music, looked modern compositions. They have left for this heavy period for the country, have brought up there the boy correctly, information there was more, he looked video, went, visited concerts. And this boy became the conductor, and in fact this occupation is very complicated, more scale thinking and wider sight on compositions are necessary, and I consider that Zhubanov’s genes influenced on Alan’s training. The boy very clever, fast, knows different languages, communicates with people well. Different orchestras invite him. Many of Zhubanovs in a science - Kair Akhmetovich (son, chemist), Bulat Akhmetovich (son, chemist), Аzhar Аkhmetovna (daughter, biologist), i.e. they from the Kazakhstan intelligence. I am known from childhood, how relatives (Zhubanovs) gathered all and not simply time spent, but something composed, played in intellectual games. If a concert everyone go on a concert, if performance - all went on performance. This family is especial. Akhmet Kuanovich is academician, Kair Akhmetovich is academician, Bulat Akhmetovich is academician, Аzhar Аkhmetovna is professor, Gaziza Akhmetovna was professor. They are scale people. To them listened both scientists and intelligence. A. Zhubanov communicated not only with musicians, but also with figures of cinema, people of a science. Certainly the person in culture takes a special place. It is impossible to tell, that they especial people, but they have left the big trace, great road of professional art, despite of difficulties, counteraction, and envy.