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MAKHMUD KASHGARY (1029/39-1101) - THE OUTSTANDING CENTRAL ASIAN PHILOLOGIST OF THE XI CENTURY

Makhmud Kashgary, Makhmud ibn al-Hussein ibn Mohammed - the great scientist, one of outstanding Central Asian philologists of the XI century, the author of the first Turkic dictionary. He is the native of barsagan family, Karakhanid dynasty, the grandson of Karakhanid’s conqueror Maverannahra Bogra khan. His father operated the Balasagun city. He has got education in Kashgar, continued in Bukhara and Bagdad. He has received knowledge on jurisprudence, arithmetic, the Koran, Sheriyat and khadis, studied the Arabian-Persian languages, literature and culture. In Bagdad belonging at that time seldzhuks, Kashgary has decided to write the book in which the explanation of many aspects of life of the Turkic people would be given, its mentality, customs, moving geography, and first of all language. In the XI century he has written the treatise «Divan lugat at-turk» and raised the status of Turkic languages. In the transactions, consisting of three volumes and 8 books, 6800 Turkic words are scientifically systematized. Well-known Makhmud Kashgary’s book «Divan lugat at-turk» represents the Turkic encyclopedia. The extensive historical and cultural, ethnographic and linguistic material is collected and generalized in it. «Divan lugat at-turk» - the monument of the Turkic culture which have embodied ethical values and standards of behavior, specific attitude of the Turkic people in the XI century. In the book along with ancient Zoroastrian-shamanist perception of world had been embodied elements of new ideology of Islam and such branch as sophism. Makhmud Kashgary wrote about the book: «I have compounded this book in alphabetic order, decorated its by proverbs, sadzhs (rhymed prose), by-words, verses, radzhazes (verses of the aggressive content) and fragments from prose. I have facilitated difficult, explained vague and worked for years... Together with it I have collected in the book mentioned subjects and known words; the book was raised to high dignity and has reached the excellent superiority». By M. Kashgary, the person should aspire «to virtue, acquiring it not to be proud». M. Kashgary sees all angrily in narrow-mindedness. «Things and property of the person are his enemies... All people have deteriorated because of thing. Having seen property, they rush on it, as if a griffon on bag... They keep the property, having locked it, do not use, crying from sparseness, they collect (save) gold». M. Kashgary’s «Divan lugat at-turk» is a unique monument of Turkic dialectology of the early Middle Ages. The scientist for the first time in history of turkology has used an historic-comparative method, created the base of dialectology. Keeping features of Turkic tribes, he used proverbs and sayings at the description. He uses in the dictionary ethnonyms, toponyms, names of related relations, clothes, designations of traditions and ceremonies of 29 tribes, describes symbols even small families. The round map of the scientist is known as the most ancient Turkic map in which places of moving of Turks are specified. The book has been finished in Bagdad (1072-1078). In 1997-1998 it has been published for the first time in the Kazakh language. M. Kashgary is also the author of the treatise «Kitap-i-dzhavahir annakhv fi liga tat-turk» («About valuable qualities of syntax of Turkic languages»). But the book has not remained.

Being younger contemporary of Jusuf Hass Hadzhib Jusuf Balasaguni, Kashgary has entered into studying of languages a comparative method and the historical approach, having put in pawn bases of that nowadays we name turkology. Al-Faraby was predecessor Kashgary. Al-Faraby works formed a basis for al-Biruny works. Turkic names of medical products at Biruny and at Kashgary are the same. Kashgary had both fine Arab-philological education and knowledge of all areas of a medieval Muslim science. «The dictionary of Turkic adverbs», devoted to Caliph al-Muktadi, has been made by Makhmud Kashgary in 1072-1074. He has presented the basic genres of Turkic folklore - ceremonial and lyrical songs, fragments of the heroic epos, historical legends (about Alexander the Great campaign), more than 400 proverbs, sayings and oral sayings.

Makhmud Kashgary’s “Divan” (“Dictionary”) - a unique monument of Turkic dialectology of the early period, giving representation about the phonetic and morphological phenomena and specificity of dialect forms. “Dictionary” contains also texts of orally-poetic creativity of Turkic tribes and the people of Central Asia, East Turkestan, and the Volga region. Makhmud Kashgary’s work written with application of scientific methods of the Arabian philology has and today exclusive value for philologists, specialists in folklore and literary critics.

Makhmud Kashgary wished to prove, that value of Turkic language is not smaller, than Arabian. For the first time the manuscript «Divan lugat at-turk » was bought by Turkish scientist Ali Amiri on a market in 1914-1915. He has charged to put in order manuscript to Kilasly Rifat. Rifat has made a copy of work and has published in 1915 the first and second book, and in 1917 - the third book in Istanbul. Since then versatile research of work begins.

Many scientists were engaged in language research, the text edition. For example, Brokkelman К. has resulted word-combinations in conformity with alphabetic order and published translations into German. Turkish scientist Basym Atalaj in 1914 has translated into Turkish and published a three-volume edition in Ankara in 1934-1943. In 1960-67 scientist Mutalibov С. has translated work into the Uzbek language. Then the work was published in China into Uigur.

M. Kashgary’s work contains many valuable data on economic, material, spiritual position of Turks. This work contains valuable data in the field of the literature, geographical and astronomical data, features of language and scientific researches. Academician Kononov I.A on coverage of materials subdivides «Divan» into 5 branches:

1. A lexicon of certain families;

2. Data on a site of the families of Turkis;

3. Grouping of Turkic languages;

4. Data on historical phonetics and grammar;

5. Data on history, geography, ethnography, poetry and folklore of Turkis.

Makhmud Kashgary has laid down the aim: to consider the words belonging only to Turkic language. Therefore we meet in the dictionary the words designating clothes, house utensils, agricultural production, the weapon, musical instruments, related and breeding names, ranks, names of dishes, animals, vegetation, names of days, months, cities, illnesses, medicines, games.

Kashgar was large shopping centre on the Great Silk way. The great scientist has grouped 6800 Turkic words in the book (110 names of the earth’s and rivers, 40 nationalities and tribes), given the explanatory in the Arabian language. 242 poems, 262 proverbs and sayings are resulted in the book. It is surprising that entered in «Divan» 875 words and 60 proverbs and sayings without any changes have entered into the Kazakh language.

Makhmud Kashgary was the witness of unknown military triumph of Turkis on huge space of a Muslim civilization of XI century. At this time the Turkis, hitherto known to the world basically as hired soldiers in armies of Muslim governors, under control of Seldzhuk’s dynasty have subordinated to themselves the extensive territories which were under the control of the Arabian and Iranian dynasties from Khurasan to the Mediterranean in the Near East, and also Asia Minor, having won over the Byzantian emperor. In the end of the Х centuries east Turkis under control of Karakhanid dynasty where Kashgar was the main city, have confirmed the power in Central Asia, having won over Samanid dynasty.

“Divan” was created in the Arabian language as the encyclopedic dictionary acquainting readers with language and culture of Turkic conquerors, come to power on the basic part of caliphate. The maintenance of „Divan” clearly testifies that for Kashgary there was no conflict between Islam and pre-Islamic Turkis faith. Kashgary absolutely naturally translates on the Arabian the numerous Turkic citations with a mention of a name of god Tengri.

It is unknown, whether has finished Kashgary the initiative up to the end, that is whether he has presented the work to the Caliph as it was spoken in its foreword. That manuscript which has reached up to now, concerns to the XIV century. This manuscript has been found again in 1916 or 1917 in Turkey, having made the big effect in the intellectual world. It has appeared on one of the book markets in the second decade of the XX-th century and since then has entered into scientific use.

Zifa-Alua Auezova, the Candidate of Philological Sciences, orientalist, granddaughter of the classic of the Kazakh literature, has devoted to transfer of a unique monument of culture of ancient Turkis Makhmud Kashgary “Divan lugat at-turk” more than 3 years. Work on transfer has begun at the initiative of Fund “Soros - Kazakhstan” in 1999 and some years lasted as besides transfer of the volume hand-written text it provided also research of some interesting problems. First of all is a studying of a lexicographic material from “Divan lugat at-turk”, entered into earlier researches and dictionaries. It is published in 1972 in the Great Britain Klozen’s “The Etymological dictionary of Turkic language till XIII century”, “The Ancient Turkic dictionary” published in 1969 by Linguistics Institute in Leningrad, and other editions on which it was necessary to verify a transcription and interpretation of separate Turkic lexemes.

The help of Zifa-Alua Auezova’s relatives in work on transfer of “Divan lugat at-turk” was invaluable. Her husband Robert Ermers, the Netherlands scientist specializing on history of Turkic and Arabian linguistics, edited transfers. Mum Horlan Matenovna Rahimbek, the researcher of philosophy of natural sciences and education, took active participation in editing of Russian part. She is the fine stylist and the judge of the literature. The daddy Murat Auezov, the orientalist and the culturologist, was the inspirer of work on transfer from its most beginning. During this period he has visited Opal (China) where presumably there is Makhmud Kashgary’s burial place. This district since ancient times is famous for the pottery. He has brought daughters to Holland a jug from Opal, which clay, probably, stores memory about Makhmud.

“Divan” completely was not translated on Russian. The big material from it was included into “The Ancient Turkic dictionary”, published in 70th years by Institute of linguistics of the Academy of sciences of the USSR. Separate lexemes from “Divan” were considered in it, but the considerable part of a cultural and linguistic material has been lowered. Why it is important to have transfer in Russian? Now people, associated themselves with Turkic culture, live on huge space of the former Soviet Union, well know Russian and got education in Russian. It is language of a science and culture which unites generation of researchers for today both in Russia, and in the countries of the Central Asia. In this region the people who well know Russian, could estimate and well experience this monument. This translation into Russian can be the important source for research work of historians and literary critics.